The CARMA Resource Bank offers free resources to support the delivery of collaborative practices in school and the wider school community.

Here you can find the final products developed during the CARMA project, theoretical resources on collaborative learning and teaching, practical lesson plans and activities, and resources to support collaborative assessment methods.

The collection of resources are also available in different languages.


Exploring collaborative learning and teaching (theoretical resources)

TEDTalk about collaboration

H. Reinghold explains the relevance of collaboration in and he talks about the origin of the need to collaborate.

Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty

The handbook addresses several questions among others: How will collaborative learning improve learning? What is the pedagogical rationale for collaborative learning? What is the evidence that collaborative learning promotes and improves learning? And how convincing is that evidence? Which students are most likely to benefit for collaborative learning? And for which learning tasks is it most appropriate

Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors

Elsevier Computers & Education Volume 51, Issue 1, August 2008, Pages 308-336

The article that presents the study those aim was to examine the relationships of the students’ perceived levels of collaborative learning, social presence and overall satisfaction in a blended learning environment.

Changing Education Paradigms

In this TED talk, Sir Ken Robinson argues that our current educational systems are still based on an industrial paradigm of education – education is increasingly standardised and about conformity, and kids, who are living in the most stimulating age in history, fail to see the point of going to school, which is about ‘finding the right answers to pass the tests’ rather than about stimulating divergent thinking.

Collaborative learning: what is it?

This article seeks to present the basic concept of CL, enabling one to understand it while ensuring important elements are taking into account. The term CL refers to an instruction method in which learners at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal.

Video: What is cooperative learning?

Short video illustrating what is cooperative learning.

Reinventing education to face the future

Short video with an interview with Tony Wagner, director of Harvard University Innovation Lab.

How to teach empathy

An article by Terry Heick on the relevance of empathy and how to teach it.

21st Century Skills for Students and Teachers

This literature review synthesizes published works on 21st century learning skills, Pacific Policy Research Center, Kamehameha Schools Research & Evaluation

A study on Collaborative Learning by the University of Cornell

A study and suggestions on collaborative learning methodology by the University of Cornell.

Non-formal open learning curriculum characteristics

This unit contains the basics of open formal, non-formal and informal learning and is organized in two topics. The first topic encompasses the core ideas and characteristics of formal, non-formal and informal learning and their differences when learning is open. Second topic emphasizes structural features of non-formal open learning course namely: learning needs and expectations, competences, pedagogical approach, delivery, assessment criterion, certification.

What is the difference between formal, informal and non-formal educating methods?

The article explains differences of formal, informal and non-formal education.

Benefits of Collaborative learning

This review article outlines benefits of learning in collaboration style, begins with the concept of the term and continues with the advantages created by collaborative methods.

COMP-PASS Guidebook about digital storytelling

Guidebook for educators about digital storytelling and how to use it with young people as an educational tool.

Evaluating teachers effectiveness

Parents, practitioners, and policymakers agree that the key to improving public education in America is placing highly skilled and effective teachers in all classrooms. Yet the nation still lacks a practical set of standards and assessments that can guarantee that teachers, particularly new teachers, are well prepared and ready to teach. This report discusses a promising approach to the question of how to measure teacher effectiveness.

Non-formal education with children and young people

Leaflet to understand better what non-formal education is.

The Teacher’s Role in Implementing Cooperative Learning in the Classroom

Gillies, R. M., Ashman, A. F., & Terwel, J. (2007). The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom: An introduction. The teacher’s role in implementing cooperative learning in the classroom, 1.

The book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the challenges and issues with clear guidelines on how teachers can embed cooperative learning into their classroom curricula to obtain the benefits widely attributed to this pedagogical practice. It does so by using language that is appropriate for both novice and experienced educators.

Enhancing Mathematical Reasoning in the Classroom: The Effects of Cooperative Learning and Metacognitive Training

Kramarski, B., & Mevarech, Z. R. (2003). Enhancing mathematical reasoning in the classroom: The effects of cooperative learning and metacognitive training. American Educational Research Journal, 40(1), 281-310.

The article presents the study those aim was to investigate the effects of four instructional methods on students’ mathematical reasoning and metacognitive knowledge. This article presents theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

Serious Games: Incorporating Video Games in the Classroom

Annetta, L. A., Murray, M. R., Laird, S. G., Bohr, S. C., & Park, J. C. (2006). Serious games: Incorporating video games in the classroom. Educause quarterly, 29(3), 16.

The article presents the study those aim was to investigate the effects of four instructional methods on students’ mathematical reasoning and metacognitive knowledge. This article presents theoretical and practical implications of the findings.

Improving learner outcomes in lifelong education: formal pedagogies in non-formal learning contexts?

Zepke, N., & Leach, (2006). Improving learner outcomes in lifelong education: formal pedagogies in non-formal learning contexts?. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 25(5), 507-518.

This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts – settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention.

Creative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education

Robinson, K., & Aronica, L. (2016). Creative Schools: The grassroots revolution that’s transforming education. Penguin Books.

In the book Ken Robinson, one of the world’s most influential voices in education, focuses on one of the most critical issues of our time: how to transform the nation’s troubled educational system.

Non-Formal Education Flexible Schooling or Participatory Education?

Rogers, A. (2007). Non-formal education: Flexible schooling or participatory education? (Vol. 15). Springer Science & Business Media.

This book explains the non-formal education Flexible Schooling or Participatory Education.

The Jigsaw Classroom: Building Cooperation in the Classroom

Aronson, E., & Patnoe, S. (1997). The jigsaw classroom: Building cooperation in the classroom.

This book explains Classroom Competition and Cultural Diversity Cooperative Learning helping competitive individuals become a cooperative group.

P4C in Preservice Teacher Education: Difficulties and Successes Encountered in Two Research Projects

Daniel, M. F. (1999). P4C in preservice teacher education: difficulties and successes encountered in two research

An article about Difficulties and Successes of P4C.

The Long-term Impact of Philosophy for Children: A Longitudinal Study (Preliminary Results)

Colom, R., Moriyón, F. G., Magro, C., & Morilla, E. (2014). The long-term impact of Philosophy for Children: A longitudinal study (preliminary results). Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis35(1), 50-56.

This is an article about P4C that has a long term impact.

Mind mapping as a teaching resource

Edwards, S., & Cooper, N. (2010). Mind mapping as a teaching resource. The clinical teacher, 7(4), 236-239.

This article looks at how to use mind mapping as a teaching resource, and was written as a result of the recent undergraduate ‘Doctors as Teachers’ conference at The Peninsula Medical School.

Digital Storytelling: A Powerful Technology Tool for the 21st Century Classroom

Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st-century classroom. Theory into practice, 47(3), 220-228.

This book about discussion of the history of digital storytelling and how it is being used educationally is presented in this article. The theoretical framework, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) is described, along with a discussion of how this model might be used with digital storytelling.

Digital storytelling, mediatized stories: Self-representations in new media

Lundby, K. (Ed.). (2008). Digital storytelling, mediatized stories: Self-representations in new media. Peter Lang.

This book for this illustration was provided in a study conducted by Levan Karumidze in Tbilisi. Contributions address current discussions concerning media and identity, the democratizing potential of new media, as well as significant debates regarding how we best theorize.

Constructive controversy

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2000). Constructive controversy. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Constructive controversy is an instructional procedure to teach students how to engage in political discourse to make decisions about community and societal issues. Constructive controversy has been used in Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, and the United States (Johnson & Johnson, 2010).

Lesson plans & activities in collaborative learning and teaching

Guide about online safety for teachers

Online guide that provides information, useful tips and practical advice to teachers who are working with digital education to help them to protect themselves and their students online from cyber-attacks.

Collaborative Learning Project

Website with resources for supporting collaborative learning.

20 collaborative learning tips and strategies for teachers

The article explains the steps to introduce collaborative learning in the classroom.

Tools for implementing group work

The website of Centre for Teaching Excellence of University of Waterloo offers some resources to assist teachers to implement group work in the classroom.

IASCE – Cooperative Learning website

IASCE is the international, non-profit organization for educators who research and practice cooperative learning to promote student academic improvement and democratic, social processes.

TACCLE 2 Books for technology based activities

This collection of books that includes 5 different books with technology enhanced activities that are also interesting as a learning projects and artefacts, for students’ collaboration.

Collaborative Learning Project

Website with resources for supporting collaborative learning.

The Ultimate List – 65 Digital Tools and Apps to Support Formative Assessment Practices

List of strategies, techniques, and tools available to teachers and students who use formative instructional practice in their classrooms.

Youth Coop

Portuguese initiative that empowers young people to build a more responsible and conscientious society.


InVET Project

In-VET project was designed to support VET teachers, school managers, vocational and educational counsellors and all VET professionals to detect, at an early stage, trainees at potential risk of dropping out from the school system. The training package includes a set of 4 modules, including a specific module that aims to design and apply specific strategies to prevent trainees/students’ dropout, through effective communication skills and through successful educational evaluation methods.


Collaborative Learning: Group Work of Cornell University (Center for teaching innovation)

Research center on collaborative learning practices in education.

Inclusive Education: What It Means, Proven Strategies, and a Case Study

An article from room 241, a blog from Concordia University of Portland, that debates the potential of inclusive education at school, shows some research results on the topic and presents proven strategies that bring out the benefits for everyone.

Practical examples to teach empathy to your students

A collection of practical exercises and examples on how to teach empathy.

Guided online resources provided by the Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority.

Guided online resources provided by the Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority that includes materials and support to foster the development of “general capabilities” such as ICT, Critical and Creative Thinking, Personal and Social Capability, Intercultural Understanding.

Fishbowl method by UNICEF KE Toolbox, 2015

The fishbowl is a method to organize presentations and group discussions that offers the benefits of small group discussions within large group settings. The method can be used to engage actively the participants and discuss the relevant topic.

Topsy Turvy method by UNICEF KE Toolbox, 2015

Topsy Turvy is a method for generating creative, unconventional ideas and solutions, and for mobilizing untapped energies. It can be particularly useful for addressing recurring problems and issues. Taking an initially negative or ‘destructive’ approach to the discussion gives participants an option to explore the other side of an issue or problem.

World Cafè method by The World Café Community Foundation

The World Café is a simple method for holding meaningful conversations around important questions in large group meetings. It is an excellent tool to encourage participant interaction, foster deeper engagement with complex or challenging issues.

Four Corners – a collaborative learning strategy

The Four Corners is a tool that is useful when the teacher wants to point out the fact that not all in the class have the same view-point or that there are multiple solutions to problems. This method allows students to participate actively and communicate with their peers.

Cubing  instructional strategy by Unitar learning & training wiki

Cubing is an instructional strategy which allows learners to think about a topic from a variety of angles. This method allows for planning different activities for different learners or groups of learners based on learner readiness, learning style, and/or interests.

Samoan Circle method by Unitar learning & training wiki

Training tool similar to fishbowl but leaderless useful to help a group of people to deal with controversial issues.

River of Life facilitation technique by Unitar learning & training wiki

River of Life is a group facilitation technique using visual narratives to help people tell stories of the past, present and future. The method enables bringing several perspectives together and immediately offers to show the big pictures.

Soft Shoe Shuffle facilitation technique by Unitar learning & training wiki

Soft Shoe Shuffle is a facilitation technique used in cases of extreme polarization of ideas. Using this technique the participants create a physical space between their different opinions and different roles by moving around a room. This technique is considered particularly useful in cases of strong polarization of opinions.

ROBIN HANDBOOK – Migration and Integration into formal Education by ROBIN project partnership, 2017

The ROBIN handbook is a practical tool, with a detailed description of each training step described in the modules, with a precise unfolding of the activities with the aim to reinforce educators’ capacities to support children on the move to complete their education and integrate successfully into society.

RIDE Practice Resources for inclusion, diversity and equality by RIDE project partnership, 2017

A collection of practical tools including 10 new session plans for dealing with challenging and hot issues such as social media, migration or extremism.

A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: Theory and practice

Moon, J. A. (2013). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: Theory and practice. Routledge.

The handbook acts as an essential guide to understanding and using reflective and experiential learning. The book provides practical ideas for applying the models of learning, with tools, activities and photocopiable resources which can be incorporated directly into classroom practice.

Collaborative assessment methods and tools

Benefits of Collaborative learning

This review article outlines benefits of learning in collaboration style, begins with the concept of the term and continues with the advantages created by collaborative methods. This paper sets out major benefits of collaborative learning into four categories of; social, psychological, academic, and assessment benefits.

Jigsawing method and how to conduct a session by Unitar learning & training wiki

It is a collaborative method in which students read and examine a portion of a reading assignment and report what they’ve learned to the entire group; a way to involve students in the subject matter presented in text and assess their knowledge.

An A-Z of Assessment methods

List of assignments that could be used either for formative assessment and/or summative assessment

CO-LAB Guidelines for Assessing Collaborative Learning in the Classroom

Guidelines to use assessments methods for collaborative learning inside the classroom using different methods, such as rubrics.

Resources in other languages

Project Based Learning methodology and how to use in schools

Project Based Learning is a methodology that help students to develop competences by creating projects to answer questions related to real problems. This website includes a video and an infographic about how to work and develop PBL in schools.

GITE catalogue

The website presents a big catalogue of different tools that teachers can use in their classrooms, specifically, the section of “web 2.0 – enseñanza” shows a great list of resources to implement in the class. There is also an interesting section for mobile learning resources.

Programme to implement cooperative learning in the classroom

Programme called cooperate to learning/ learning to cooperate (CA/AC, in Spanish) of the University of Vic- Central University of Catalonia (UVic-UCC) is structured around three areas of intervention: cohesion of the groups, work group and work group as content.

Collaborative Learning Section

Different open and free resources to use in collaborative proposals and activities with students.

Collaboration as methodology in teaching

Two videos about the concept of online collaboration and possibilities regarding technologies to develop collaborative techniques.

New media and collaborative learning

Article of Paz Prendes on collaborative learning and teaching methods and tools.

Strategies and online environments for collaboration

Article of Francisco Martínez and Paz Prendes about three models of collaboration supported by the use of ICT tools.

Tools and Methodologies for collaborative learning and competence education by Confao

A collection of methodologies and theoretical background on the importance of cooperative learning.

Formal Eğitim Nedir? Formal olmayan eğitimler nelerdir?

This forum explain What is the formal education and non-formal education.

Educação: cenários orientadores da aprendizagem do futuro

An article focusing on the characterization of the future of learning, framing it in the social and educational context in which develops.

Methods, Pedagogical Techniques and Teaching Support in Real Work Context

A manual (toolkit) with resources for trainers to develop their skills in using non-formal approaches.

Non-Formal Education: A contribution to the understanding of the concept and practices in Portugal

This work focuses on the study of non-formal education (NFE), being its main objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the NFE problematic in the frame of the lifelong learning paradigm, to clarify the pertinence of NFE as a concept and as an educational proposal, and to provide guidelines for the development of integrated education policies in Portugal.

Contribuição do ensino não formal para o desenvolvimento de competências do currículo de ciências do 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico

This master`s thesis study resulted primarily from the author’s professional experience as a teacher of Physics and Chemistry of students from 7th to 12th grade and from her frequent use of non-formal education contexts in her teaching activity. The purpose of this study was to understand the contribution of non-formal education for science education and on the other hand, to improve students’ learning and to improve science teacher action.

Inclusão e Bullying: Práticas, prevenção e intervenção dos professores de um agrupamento TEIP

Scholar bullying has gradually increased in the last years and became a phenomenon which generates a huge uneasiness in schools, affecting students, teachers, operational assistants, students’ families, and also the whole educative community. In this line of thought, it is our purpose to study the strategies used by teachers, which belong to a group of TEIP schools in Braga, in relation to scholar bullying and the SEN children.

Ensino colaborativo: clima de partilha

The study examines the collaborative teaching model practiced in the schools of the 1st cycle of the Group of Schools of Pevidém – Guimarães, in the academic year 2010/2011. The main objective of this research is to characterize the collaborative model between the teacher of special education and regular education in serving children with special educational needs.

Teacher in France: a lonely job?

A result of the TALIS study about teachers in France and collaborative practices between colleagues.

OECD work on education and skills

Andreas Schleicher, Director for Education and Skills, and Special Advisor on Education Policy to the Secretary-General at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), explains how shared experiences car help to identify weaknesses and skills to have a better access to employment and a better social inclusion. This document shows the work of the OECD on education and skills, with national indicators in order to target better the improvements to make.

Refoundation of the school: place for non-formal education

This publication aims at leading the citizens and educators to think about the complementarity of the different forms of education (formal, non-formal)

UNESCO: Articulation of formal and non-formal education. Implications for teacher training

This document addresses first of all national stakeholders in the field of education who would like to start thinking about development perspectives for their training system and above all strategies and the conditions of participation of their teachers in their training phase.



The purpose of this research is to examine the projections and student reflections in the context of the teachers teaching coding (programming) within the scope of the project.

Çocuklarla Felsefe Öğretim Programı’nın Okul Öncesi Dönemdeki Çocukların Eleştirel Düşünme Becerileri Üzerindeki Etkililiği

Karadağ, F., & Demirtaş, V. Y. (2018). Çocuklarla Felsefe Öğretim Programı’nın Okul Öncesi Dönemdeki Çocukların Eleştirel Düşünme Becerileri Üzerindeki Etkililiği. EĞİTİM VE BİLİM.

The purpose of this study is to understand the effectiveness of philosophy with children curriculum on critical thinking.

Bildung im außerschulischen und außerfamiliären kontext

The paper that explains the national conferences on non-formal education in the field of children and youth aiming to provide a platform for exchange between experts in child day care and youth work.

Non-formale und informelle Lernprozesse in der Kinder- und Jugendarbeit und ihre Nachweise

The discussion around the German PISA Consortium, 2001 and 2002, showing that German education system is partially efficient, and that it is even less successful than other comparable education systems.

Individuelle Förderung durch Kooperatives Lernen – Vielfalt-lernen-Wiki

The article explains the need and strategies on how to increase individual support for pupils in school practice, and improve the school framework conditions in the regular school system.

Neue Medien in der Bildung – Lernformen der Zukunft

The paper discusses the ideas of modern, individual and self-determined learning with digital media and still common learning with books and its developments.

Die Schule als lernende Organisation

The article presents and explains the assumption that schools can learn because it implicitly contradicts the basic assumptions of traditional pedagogy.

Digitale Kompetenz und die Bildung

The paper that discusses how educational system should enable people to benefit from digitisation and actively shape change.

Informelles Lernen von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern im Kontext Schule und Migration

The discussion around the focus on migration in the field of school practice at the level of education policy on the employment of more teachers with a migration background and from the observation represented in the literature in the context of school and migration.

Nichtformale und informelle Lerngelegenheiten im Zusammenspiel mit familiären Sozialisations- merkmalen und leistungsrelevanten Einstellungen.

The paper presents results of educational research on institutional framework conditions, the instruction and upbringing behaviour of teachers as well as the upbringing behaviour of parents that have an influence on school performance.


A pedagogical discussion on « New forms of teaching and learning » and the « new teaching and learning culture » that discusses the definition of these and related terms, explaining how corresponding approaches can be realised in practice and to show how such an implementation can be researched.

Diversity-Training in Schulen

A model of good practice including a modular system for application.

CARMA resources

Carma toolkit for teachers – Short Version

A step-by-step guide for implementing collaborative learning to increase student motivation and participation

Carma toolkit for teachers – Long Version

A step-by-step guide for implementing collaborative learning to increase student motivation and participation

Competence assessment model

A model to assess teachers’ skills and competences in collaborative learning

Teacher diary

A diary to support teachers to reflect and record the experiences in using non-formal learning techniques with students in the classroom

Carma inclusion strategy

A set of recommendations for teachers, school managers, governments and policymakers, for integrating collaborative learning in school curriculum to promote ways to reduce early school leaving and increase students’ participation and motivation

CARMA reports

Early School Leaving – Statistics, Policies and Good Practices in Collaborative Learning Report

Early School Leaving – Statistics, Policies and Good Practices in Collaborative Learning Report – Executive Summary

Needs Analysis Survey Report

European Workshop For Collaborative Competences For Teachers – Evaluation Of Learning Outcomes Report

Carma Overall Piloting Report

Carma Final Evaluation Report For Teachers, Students, School Community And Policy Makers

Carma Final Evaluation Report For Teachers, Students, School Community And Policy Makers – Summary

Carma Evaluation Report – Non-formal Learning Experts

Carma Evaluation Report – Non-formal Learning Experts – Summary

External Evaluation Report – Mid-term

External Evaluation Report – Final

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